Historically much of First Nations knowledges, languages, history, etc has been recorded by Non-Indigenous authors without proper attribution to communities that this information comes from, as such I attempted (poorly) to create some referencing guidelines in APA to potentially correct this. Please comment adjustments you would make and things you would add.
Note: I selected these examples off the top of my head and I quite like their work and I by no means think they are not properly attributed First Nations knowledges.
Non-Indigenous author who references or applies First Nations knowledges, if an individual First Nations knowledge holder is named. Book example, can be adjusted for different formats
In text citation – (Original author last name, Nation/Clan/Community, as cited in Author last name of work where quote found, Year)
Example – (Sentance, Wiradjuri, as cited by Sullivan & Middleton, 2020)
Reference – follows current APA referencing guidelines without adjustment unless you are using the reference for your work (assignment, report, article, etc) which relates to First Nations people, culture and/or history. If that’s the case, then reference is Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. Non-Indigenous. (YEAR). Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publishing Company
Example – Sullivan N., & Middleton, C. Non-Indigenous. (2020). Queering the museum. Abingdon, Oxon ;: Routledge.
Non-Indigenous author who references or applies knowledge or information that originates from a First Nations community and no individual First Nations knowledge holder/s are named. Book example, can be adjusted for different formats
In text citation – (Nation/Clan/Community knowledge, as cited in Author last name, non-Indigenous,Year)
Example – (Wiradjuri knowledge, as cited by Griffiths, Non-Indigenous, 2018)
Reference – Nation/Clan/Community knowledge (inclusive page numbers or page numbers of cited information). In Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. Non-Indigenous. (YEAR). Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publishing Company
Example – Wiradjuri knowledge (pp. 34-35). In Griffiths, B. Non-Indigenous. (2018). Deep time dreaming : uncovering ancient Australia. Carlton, VIC: Black Inc., an imprint of Schwartz Publishing Pty, Ltd.
Non-Indigenous author who references or uses First Nations knowledges or information received from a First Nations community or community member but does name the community or community member or does not provide enough to determine which community the knowledge originates from. Book example, can be adjusted for different format.
In text citation – (Indigenous knowledge, Australia, as cited by Author last name, non-Indigenous,Year)
Example – (Indigenous knowledge, Australia, as cited by Griffiths, Non-Indigenous, 2018)
Reference – Indigenous knowledge, Country of origin [Indigenous community not recorded], (inclusive page numbers or page numbers of cited information). In Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. Non-Indigenous. (YEAR). Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publishing Company
Example – Indigenous knowledge, Australia [Indigenous community not recorded], (pp. 34-35). In Griffiths, B. Non-Indigenous. (2018). Deep time dreaming : uncovering ancient Australia. Carlton, VIC: Black Inc., an imprint of Schwartz Publishing Pty, Ltd.
Non-Indigenous author who has conducted research on First Nations land which heavily interacts with the land (eg ecological research, botanical, etc). Journal example, can be adjusted for different formats
In text citation – (Nation/Clan/Community Country, Author Surname, Year)
Example – (Wiradjuri Country, Johnson, Laake, & Ver Hoef, 2010)
Reference – Nation/Clan/Community Country. Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue*), page range.
Example – Wiradjuri Country. Johnson, D., Laake, J., & Ver Hoef, J. (2010). A Model-Based Approach for Making Ecological Inference from Distance Sampling Data. Biometrics, 66(1), 310–318.
By Nathan mudyi Sentance
9 thoughts on “Indigenous Referencing Prototype – Non-Indigenous authored works”
Thank you so much for these much needed referencing directives!! I include the Nation of Indigenous scholars/curators authors in text too, so their authority is clear – for example ‘As stated by Amy Lonetree (Ho-Chunk Nation), “xyz”.’ If someone is non-Indigenous/ a settler or whatever, I think that should also be clearly stated. These positions make authority clear. In this day and age, I feel an article should always have a positionality statement so I know authors are aware of their own entitlement and/or privilege. I also like to disrupt bibliographic practice. If I read a book where non-Indigenous authors have quoted extensively and/or included knowledge from Indigenous people who are not included as co-authors, I tend to expand the bibliographic entry so it includes the names of ALL who contributed, not just the designators of the editor. I’m thinking through this in relation to referencing the knowledge people share with my in my own PhD research which I am just in the process of undertaking and writing up. Thanks again for such a great post !!
I 100 percent agree
[…] teased us with one he prepared earlier, but later shared some ideas about non-Indigenous writers citing the Indigenous knowledge that has been on this country […]
Many thanks, a great post. I am about to start some research into Indigenous history so very helpful information.
I was told about this post just a few hours ago and have been thinking about how to reference things. Taking as an example a song text, originally sung by a Kurburu, who lived at Dandenong, was probably a Boonwurrung man. This song was learned by the Wurundjeri elder Berak or Barak (William Barak) and then sung by him to both A.W. Howitt and Rev. G. Torrance who published information about it several times. So would a possible reference to it be something like this?
Kurburu (Boonwurrung elder). Song learned by Barak (Wurundjeri elder) in Torrance, G.W. 1887. ‘Music of the Australian Aboriginals.’ Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 16: 335-340.
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Yiradhu marang Stephen,
Thanks for the comment. I really like the reference you have put in your comment.
I might email you in the future about this because I’m thinking of expanding this referencing.
Dhalan yalgirri (talk soon)
Here is a great resource on Citation practices from colleagues at Xwi7wa Library; https://guides.library.ubc.ca/aboriginalstudies/citing
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Hi Nathan, I really appreciate this referencing guide, and your published work – thank you!
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Nathan, I’ve missed your response to me about a year ago, sorry about that! My email can be found at https://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/smorey